1. Jennett B, Teasdale G. Management of Head Injuries. Philadelphia: FA Davis Co, 1981:271.
2. Temkin NR, Dikmen SS, Wilensky AJ, et al. A randomized double-blind study of phenytoin for the prevention of post-traumatic seizures. N Engl J Med 1990;323:497502.
3. Caveness WF. Epilepsy, a product of trauma in our time. Epilepsia 1976;17:207215.
4. Weiss GH, Feeney DM, Caveness WF, et al. Prognostic factors for the occurrence of posttraumatic epilepsy. Arch Neurol 1983;40:710.
5. Weiss GH, Salazar AM, Vance SC, et al. Predicting posttraumatic epilepsy in penetrating head injury. Arch Neurol 1986;43:771773.
6. Annegers JF, Hauser WA, Coan SP, Rocca WA. A population-based study of seizures after traumatic brain injuries. N Engl J Med 1998;338:2024.
7. Feeney DM, Walker AE. The prediction of posttraumatic epilepsy. A mathematical approach. Arch Neurol 1979;36:812.
8. Salazar AM, Jabbari B, Vance SC, et al. Epilepsy after penetrating head injury. I. Clinical correlates: a report of the Vietnam Head Injury study. Neurology 1985;35:14061414.
9. Jennett B. Epilepsy and acute traumatic intracranial haematoma. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1975;38:378381.
10. Kaplan HA. Management of craniocerebral trauma and its relation to subsequent seizures. Epilepsia 1961;2:111116.
11. DeCarolis P, DAlessandro R, Ferrara R, et al. Late seizures in patients with internal carotid and middle cerebral artery occlusive disease following ischaemic events. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1984;47:13451347.
12. Richardson EP, Dodge PR. Epilepsy in cerebrovascular disease. Epilepsia 1954;3:4974.
13. Faught E, Peters D, Bartolucci A, et al. Seizures after primary intracerebral hemorrhage. Neurology 1989;39:10891093.
14. Aisen P. Some Physicochemical Aspects of Iron Metabolism. In Ciba Foundation Symposium (51st ed). New York: Elsevier, 1977:114.
15. Levitt P, Wilson WP, Wilkins RH. The effects of subarachnoid blood on the electrocorticogram of the cat. J Neurosurg 1971;35:185191.
16. Willmore LJ, Sypert GW, Munson JB. Recurrent seizures induced by cortical iron injection: a model of post-traumatic epilepsy. Ann Neurol 1978;4:329336.
17. Annegers JF, Grabow JD, Grover RV, et al. Seizures after head trauma: a population study. Neurology 1980;30:683689.
18. Bontke CF, Lehmkuhl LD, Englander J, et al. Medical complications and associated injuries of patients treated in TBI Model System programs. J Head Trauma Rehabil 1993;8(2):3446.
19. Kalisky Z, Morrison P, Meyers CA, Von Laufen AV. Medical problems encountered during rehabilitation of patients with head injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1985;66:2529.
20. Sazbon L, Groswasser Z. Outcome in 134 patients with prolonged posttraumatic unawareness. Part 1: parameters determining late recovery of consciousness. J Neurosurg 1990;72:7580.
21. Ascroft PB. Traumatic epilepsy after gunshot wounds of the head. BMJ 1941;1:739744.
22. Caveness WF, Liss HR. Incidence of post-traumatic epilepsy. Epilepsia 1961;2:123129.
23. Caveness WF, Meirowsky AM, Rish BL, et al. The nature of posttraumatic epilepsy. J Neurosurg 1979;50:545553.
24. Devinsky O. Epilepsy after minor head trauma. J Epilepsy 1996;9:9497.
25. da Silva AM, Vaz AR, Riberiro I, et al. Controversies in posttraumatic epilepsy. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 1990;50:4851.
26. Walker AE. Posttraumatic epilepsy in World War II veterans. Surg Neurol 1989;32:235236.
27. Walker AE, Blumer D. The fate of World War II veterans with posttraumatic seizures. Arch Neurol 1989;46:2326.
28. Walker AE, Jablon S. A follow-up of head injured men of World War II. J Neurosurg 1959;16:600610.
29. Jennett WB, Lewin W. Traumatic epilepsy after closed head injuries. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1960;23:295301.
30. Walker AE, Erculei F. Posttraumatic epilepsy 15 years later. Epilepsia 1970;11:1726.
31. Westbrook LE, Devinsky O, Geocadin B. Nonepileptic seizures after head injury. Epilepsia 1998;39:978982.
32. Falconer MA, Serafetinides EA, Corsellis JA. Etiology and pathogenesis of temporal lobe epilepsy. Arch Neurol 1964;10:233248.
33. Betz P, Eisenmenger W. Traumatic origin of a meningioma? Int J Legal Med 1995;107:326328.
34. Mathern GW, Babb TL, Armstrong DL. Hippocampal Sclerosis. In J Engel Jr, TA Pedley (eds), Epilepsy: a Comprehensive Textbook. Philadelphia: LippincottRaven, 1997:133155.
35. Cascino GD, Jack CR, Parisi JE, et al. Operative strategy in patients with MRI-identified dual pathology and temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsy Res 1993;33:639644.
36. Li LM, Cendes F, Watson C, et al. Surgical treatment of patients with single and dual pathology: relevance of lesion and of hippocampal atrophy to seizure outcome. Neurology 1997;48:437444.
37. Lowenstein DH, Thomas MJ, Smith DH, McIntosh TK. Selective vulnerability of dentate hilar neurons following traumatic brain injury: a potential mechanistic link between head trauma and disorders of the hippocampus. J Neurosci 1992;12:48464853.
38. Lingren SO. Experimental studies of mechanical effects in head injury. Acta Chir Scand 1966;132[Suppl 360]:132.
39. Willmore LJ. Prophylactic Use of Anticonvulsant Drugs. In SR Resor Jr, H Kutt (eds), Medical Treatment of Epilepsy. New York: Dekker, 1992:7377.
40. Rapport RL, Penry JK. Pharmacologic prophylaxis of post-traumatic epilepsy: a review. Epilepsia 1972;13:295304.
41. Young B, Rapp R, Brooks WH, et al. Post-traumatic epilepsy prophylaxis. Epilepsia 1979;20:671681.
42. Rish BL, Caveness WF. Relation of prophylactic medication to the occurrence of early seizures following craniocerebral trauma. J Neurosurg 1973;38:155158.
43. Wohns RN, Wyler AR. Prophylactic phenytoin in severe head injuries. J Neurosurg 1979;51:507509.
44. Penry JK, White BG, Brackett CE. A controlled prospective study of the pharmacologic prophylaxis of posttraumatic epilepsy. Neurology 1979;29:600601.
45. Young B, Rapp RP, Norton JA, et al. Failure of prophylactically administered phenytoin to prevent late post- traumatic seizures. J Neurosurg 1983;58:236241.
46. Haltiner AM, Newell DW, Temkin NR, et al. Side effects and mortality associated with use of phenytoin for early posttraumatic seizure prophylaxis. J Neurosurg 1999;91:588592.
47. Silver JM, Shin C, McNamara JO. Antiepileptogenic effects of conventional anticonvulsants in the kindling model of epilepsy. Ann Neurol 1991;29:356363.
48. Temkin NR, Dikmen SS, Anderson GD, et al. Valproate therapy for prevention of posttraumatic seizures: a randomized trial. J Neurosurg 1999;91:593600.
49. Pudenz RH, Shelden CH. The lucite calvariuma method for direct observation of the brain. J Neurosurg 1946;3:487505.
50. Gennarelli TA, Thibaulat LE, Adams JH, et al. Diffuse axonal injury and traumatic coma in the primate. Ann Neurol 1982;12:564574.
51. Langfitt TW, Weinstein JD, Kassell NF. Vascular Factors in Head Injury. Contribution to Brain-Swelling and Intracranial Hypertension. In WE Caveness, AE Walker (eds), Head Injury. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1966:172194.
52. Tornheim PA, Liwnicz BH, Hirsch CS, et al. Acute responses to blunt head trauma. J Neurosurg 1983;59:431438.
53. Unterharnscheidt F, Sellier K. Mechanisms and pathomorphology of closed head injuries. In WF Caveness, AE Walker (eds), Head Injury. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1966:321341.
54. Willmore LJ. Posttraumatic epilepsy: cellular mechanisms and implications for treatment. Epilepsia 1990;31[Suppl 3]:S67S73.
55. Payan H, Toga M, Berard-Badier M. The pathology of post-traumatic epilepsies. Epilepsia 1970;11:8194.
56. Fong KL, McCay BP, Poyer JL, et al. Evidence that peroxidation of lysosomal membranes is initiated by hydroxyl free radicals produced during flavin enzyme activity. J Biol Chem 1973;248:77927797.
57. Fong KL, McCay PB, Poyer JL, et al. Evidence of superoxide-dependent reduction of Fe3+ and its role in enzyme-generated hydroxyl radical formation. Chem Biol Interact 1976;15:7789.
58. Svingen BA, ONeal FO, Aust SD. The role of super- oxide and singlet oxygen in lipid peroxidation. Photo- chem Photobiol 1978;28:803809.
59. Willmore LJ, Hiramatsu M, Kochi H, Mori A. Formation of superoxide radicals, lipid peroxides, and edema after FeCl3 injection into rat isocortex. Brain Res 1983;277:393396.
60. Czapski G, Ilan YA. On the generation of the hydroxylation agent from superoxide radical. Can the Haber- Weiss reaction be the source of OH radicals? Photo- chem Photobiol 1978;28:651653.
61. Koppenol WH, Butler J, van Leeuwen JW. The HaberWeiss cycle. Photochem Photobiol 1978;28:655660.
62. Aust SD, Svingen BA. The role of iron in enzymatic lipid peroxidation. In WA Pryor (ed), Free Radicals in Biology. New York: Academic, 1982:128.
63. Baker N, Wilson L. Water-soluble products of UV-irradiated, autoxidized linoleic and linolenic acids. J Lipid Res 1966;7:341348.
64. Niehaus WG, Samuelsson B. Formation of malonalde- hyde from phospholipid arachidonate during microsomal lipid peroxidation. Eur J Biochem 1968;6:126130.
65. Triggs WJ, Willmore LJ. In vivo lipid peroxidation in rat brain following intracortical Fe2+ injection. J Neurochem 1984;42:976980.
66. Smith GJ, Dunkley WL. Initiation of lipid peroxidation by a reduced metal ion. Arch Biochem Biophys 1962;98:4648.
67. Anderson DK, Means ED. Lipid peroxidation in spinal cord. FeCl2 induction and protection with antioxidants. Neurochem Pathol 1983;1:249264.
68. Willmore LJ, Rubin JJ. Effects of antiperoxidants on FeCl2-induced lipid peroxidation and focal edema in rat brain. Exp Neurol 1984;83:6270.
69. Triggs WJ, Willmore LJ. Effect of [dl]-alpha-tocopherol on FeCl2-induced lipid peroxidation in rat amygdala. Neurosci Lett 1994;180:3336.
70. Willmore LJ, Rubin JJ. Antiperoxidant pretreatment and iron-induced epileptiform discharge in the rat: EEG and histopathologic study. Neurology 1981;31:6369.
71. Prince DA, Connors BW. Mechanisms of epileptogenesis in cortical structures. Ann Neurol 1984;16[Suppl]:S59S64.
72. Dichter MA, Ayala GF. Cellular mechanisms of epilepsy: a status report. Science 1987;237:157164.
73. Saji M, Reis DJ. Delayed transneuronal death of substantia nigra neurons prevented by gamma-aminobutyric acid agonist. Science 1987;235:6669.
74. Faden AI, Demediuk P, Panter SS, Vink R. The role of excitatory amino acids and NMDA receptors in traumatic brain injury. Science 1989;244:798800.
75. Gall CM, Isackson PJ. Limbic seizures increase neuronal production of messenger RNA for nerve growth factor. Science 1989;245:758761.
76. Nieto-Sampedro M. Astrocyte mitogen inhibitor related to epidermal growth factor receptor. Science 1988;240:17841786.
77. Green RC, Blume HW, Kupferschmid SB, Mesulam MM. Alterations of hippocampal acetylcholinesterase in human temporal lobe epilepsy. Ann Neurol 1989;26:347351.
78. Sutula T, Cascino G, Cavazos J, et al. Mossy fiber synaptic reorganization in the epileptic human temporal lobe. Ann Neurol 1989;26:321330.
79. Ribak CE, Harris AB, Vaughn JE, Roberts E. Inhibitory GABAergic nerve terminals decrease at sites of focal epilepsy. Science 1979;205:211214.
80. Carlsson J, Carpenter VS. The recA+ gene product is more important than catalase and superoxide dismutase in protecting Escherichia coli against hydrogen peroxide toxicity. J Bacteriol 1980;142:319321.
81. Imlay JA, Linn S. DNA damage and oxygen radical toxicity. Science 1988;240:13021309.
82. Panter SS, Sadrzadeh SM, Hallaway PE, et al. Hypohaptoglobinemia associated with familial epilepsy. J Exp Med 1985;161:748754.
83. Gutteridge JM. The antioxidant activity of haptoglobin towards haemoglobin-stimulated lipid peroxidation. Biochim Biophys Acta 1987;917:219223.
84. During MJ, Spencer DD. Extracellular hippocampal glutamate and spontaneous seizure in the conscious human brain. Lancet 1993;341:16071610.
85. Rothstein JD, Dykes-Hoberg M, Pardo CA, et al. Knockout of glutamate transporters reveals a major role for astroglial transport in excitotoxicity and clearance of glutamate. Neuron 1996;16:675686.
86. Lehre KP, Levy LM, Ottersen OP, et al. Differential expression of two glial glutamate transporters in the rat brain: quantitative and immunocytochemical observations. J Neurosci 1995;15:18351853.
87. Tanaka S, Kondo S, Tanaka T, Yonemasu Y. Long-term observation of rats after unilateral intra-amygdaloid injection of kainic acid. Brain Res 1988;463:163167.
88. Tanaka T, Tanaka S, Fujita T, et al. Experimental complex partial seizures induced by a microinjection of kainic acid into limbic structures. Prog Neurobiol 1992;38:317334.
89. Ueda Y, Willmore LJ, Triggs WJ. Amygdalar injection of FeCl3 causes spontaneous recurrent seizures. Exp Neurol 1998;153:123127.
90. Doi T, Ueda Y, Tokumaru J, et al. Sequential changes in glutamate transporter mRNA during Fe+++ induced epileptogenesis. Mol Brain Res 2000;75:105112.
91. Ueda Y, Willmore LJ. Sequential changes in glutamate transporter protein levels during Fe+++ induced epileptogenesis. Epilepsy Res 2000;39:201219.
92. Borden LA, Smith KE, Hartig PR, et al. Molecular heterogeneity of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transport system. J Biol Chem 1992;267:2109821104.
93. Durkin MM, Smith KE, Borden LA, et al. Localization of messenger RNAs encoding three GABA transporters in rat brain: an in situ hybridization study. Mol Brain Res 1995;33:721.
94. Minelli A, Brecha NC, Karschin C, et al. GAT-1, a high affinity GABA plasma membrane transporter is localized to neurons and astroglia in the cerebral cortex. J Neurosci 1995;15:77347746.
95. Ribak CE, Tong WM, Brecha NC. GABA plasma membrane transporters. GAT-1 and GAT-2 display different distributions in the rat hippocampus. J Comp Neurol 1996;367:595606.
96. Ueda Y, Willmore LJ. Hippocampal gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter alterations following focal epileptogenesis induced in rat amygdala. Brain Res Bull 2000;52:357361.
97. Fridovich I. Superoxide dismutase. Adv Enzymol 1974;41:3597.
98. Orlowski M, Karkowsky A. Glutathione metabolism and some possible functions of glutathione in the nervous system. Int Rev Neurobiol 1976;19:75121.
99. Tappel AL. Lipid peroxidation damage to cell components. Fed Proc 1973;32:18701874.
100. McCay PB, King MM. Vitamin E: Its Role As a Biological Free Radical Scavenger and Its Relationship to the Microsomal Mixed-Function Oxidase System. In LJ Machlin (ed), Vitamin E. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1980;289317.
101. Rehncrona S, Smith DS, Akesson B, et al. Peroxidative changes in brain cortical fatty acids and phospholipids, as characterized during Fe2+- and ascorbic acid-stimulated lipid peroxidation in vitro. J Neurochem 1980;34:16301638.
102. Tappel AL. Vitamin E and free radical peroxidation of lipids. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1972;203:1228.
103. Witting LA. Vitamin E and Lipid Antioxidants in FreeRadical-Initiated Reactions. In WA Pryor (ed), Free Radicals in Biology (vol 4). New York: Academic, 1980;295319.
104. Diplock AT, Lucy JA. The biochemical modes of action of vitamin E and selenium: a hypothesis. FEBS Lett 1973;29:205210.
105. Lucy JA. Functional and structural aspects of biological membranes: a suggested structural role for vitamin E in the control of membrane permeability and stability. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1972;203:411.
106. Hall ED, Yonkers PA, McCall JM, Braughler JM. Effects of the 21-aminosteroid U74006F on experimental head injury in mice. J Neurosurg 1988;68:456461.
107. Willmore LJ. Post-traumatic epilepsy: mechanisms and prevention [Review]. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1995;49:S171S173.
108. Chan PH, Fishman RA. Transient formation of super- oxide radicals in polyunsaturated fatty acid-induced brain swelling. J Neurochem 1980;35:10041007.
109. Fishman RA, Chan PH, Lee J, Quan S. Effects of superoxide free radicals on the induction of brain edema. Neurology 1979;29:546.
110. Wagner FC, Stewart WB. Effect of trauma dose on spinal cord edema. J Neurosurg 1981;54:88028806.
111. Callaghan N, Garrett A, Goggin T. Withdrawal of anti- convulsant drugs in patients free of seizures for two years. N Engl J Med 1988;318:942946.
112. Chadwick D, Reynolds EH. When do epileptic patients need treatment? Starting and stopping medication. BMJ 1985;290:18851888.
Reviewed April 2004 by Steven C. Schachter, MD, epilepsy.com Editorial Board.
© 2013 Epilepsy.com. All rights reserved.