Several systems, including the beta-endorphin and the serotonergic systems, have been implicated in the pathophysiology of treatment-resistant self-injurious behavior and related behaviors, such as stereotypic behaviors. These hypotheses have been supported by the beneficial effects of treating affected individuals with the opiate antagonist naltrexone (for beta-endorphin disorders) and serotonin-modulating compounds (for disorders of the serotonergic system).23,29,30
Reviewed and revised May 2004 by Steven C. Schachter, MD, epilepsy.com Editorial Board.
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