1. Wing L. Severely retarded children in a London area: prevalence and provision of services. Psychol Med 1971;1:405–415.
2. Kushlik A, Cox GR. The epidemiology of mental handicap. Dev Med Child Neurol 1973;15:748–759.
3. Jacobson J. Assessing the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the developmentally disabled population. In E Dibble, CD Gray (eds), Assessment of Behavior Problems in Persons with Mental Retardation Living in the Community. Rockville, MD: National Institute of Mental Health, 1990;19–70.
4. Emerson E, Barrett S, Bell C, et al. Developing Services for People with Severe Learning Difficulties and Challenging Behaviors. Canterbury, UK: University of Kent at Canterbury, Institute of Social and Applied Psychology, 1987.
5. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 1990.
6. Belser RC, Sudhalter V. Conversational characteristics of children with fragile X syndrome: repetitive speech. Am J Ment Retard 2001;106:28–38.
7. Ozonoff S, Strayer DL, McMahon WM, Filloux F. Inhibitory deficits in Tourette syndrome: a function of comorbidity and symptom severity. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 1998;39(8):1109–1118.
8. McEvoy RE, Rogers SJ, Pennington BF. Executive function and social communication deficits in young autistic children. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 1993;34 (4):563–578.
9. Hughes C, Russell J, Robbins T. Evidence for executive dysfunction in autism. Neuropsychologia 1994;32(4):477–492.
10. Reiss S. Prevalence of dual diagnosis in community-based day programs in Chicago metropolitan area. Am J Ment Def 1990;14:43–50.
11. Reiss S, Levitan GW, McMally RJ. Emotionally disturbed, mentally retarded people: an underserved population. Am Psychol 1982;37:361–367.
12. Reiss S, Levitan GW, Szyszko J. Emotional disturbance and mental retardation: diagnostic overshadowing. Am J Ment Def 1982;86:567–574.
13. Reiss S. Assessment of man with dual diagnosis. Ment Retard 1992;30:1–16.
14. Rasmussen SA, Eisen JL. Epidemiology of obsessive compulsive disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 1990;51[Suppl]:10–13.
15. Barak Y, Ring A, Levy D, et al. Disabling compulsions in 11 mentally retarded adults: an open trial of clomipramine SR. J Clin Psychiatry 1995;56:459–461.
16. Gedye A. Recognizing obsessive-compulsive disorder in clients with developmental disabilities. Ment Health Newsl 1992;11:73–77.
17. Gedye A. Issues involved in recognizing obsessive-compulsive disorder in developmentally disabled clients. Semin Clin Neuropsychiatry 1996;1:142–147.
18. Sovner R, Hurley AD. Do the mentally retarded suffer from affective illness? Arch Gen Psychiatry 1983;40:61–67.
19. Szymanski LS, Biederman J. Depression and anorexia nervosa of persons with Down syndrome. Am J Ment Def 1984;89(3):246–251.
20. Marston GM, Perry DW, Roy A. Manifestations of depression in people with intellectual disability. J Intellect Disabil Res 1997;41[Pt 6]:476–480.
21. Pies RW, Popli AP. Self-injurious behavior: patho- physiology and implications for treatment. J Clin Psychiatry 1995;56(12):580–588.
22. Osman OT, Loschen EL. Self-injurious behavior in the developmentally disabled: pharmacologic treatment. Psychopharmacol Bull 1992;28(4):439–449.
23. Verhoeven WM, Tuinier S, van den Berg YW, et al.Stress and self-injurious behavior; hormonal and serotonergic parameters in mentally retarded subjects. Pharmacopsychiatry 1999;32(1):13–20.
24. Nyhan WL. The recognition of Lesch-Nyhan syndrome as an inborn error of purine metabolism. Inherit Metab Dis 1997;20(2):171–178.
25. Pellicer F, Buendia-Roldan I, Pallares-Trujillo V. Self-mutilation in the Lesch-Nyhan syndrome: a corporal consciousness problem? A new hypothesis. Med Hypotheses 1998;50(1):43–47.
26. Sivam SP. Dopamine, serotonin and tachykinin in self-injurious behavior. Life Sci 1996;58(26):2367–2375.
27. Francois J. The Riley-Day syndrome. Familial dysautonomy, central autonomic dysfunction. Ophthalmologica 1977;174(1):20–34.
28. Tonholo-Silva ER, Takahashi SI, Yoshinaga L. Familial dysautonomia (Riley-Day syndrome). Arq Neuropsiquiatr 1994;52(1):103–105.
29. Sandman CA. Beta-endorphin dysregulation in autistic and self-injurious behavior: a neurodevelopmental hypothesis. Synapse 1988;2(3):193–199.
30. Sandman CA, Barron JL, Colman H. An orally administered opiate blocker, naltrexone, attenuates self-injurious behavior. Am J Ment Retard 1990;95(1):93–102.
31. Matson JL, Gardner WI. Behavioral learning theory and current applications to severe behavior problems in persons with mental retardation. Clin Psychol Rev 1991; 11:175–183.
32. Mason SA, Iwata BA.Artifactual effects of sensory-integrative therapy on self-injurious behavior. J Appl Behav Anal 1990;23(3):361–370.
33. Oliver C, Head D. Self injurious behavior in people with learning disabilities: determinants and interventions. Int Rev Psychiatry 1990;2:101–116.
34. Gardner WI, Moffat CW. Aggressive behavior: definition, assessment, treatment. Int Rev Psychiatry 1990;2:91–100.
35. Gardner WI, Graeber JL. Use of behavioral therapies to enhance personal competence: a multimodal diagnostic and intervention model. In N Bouras (ed), Mental Health in Mental Retardation: Recent Advances and Practices. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1994;205–223.
36. Gedye A. Behavioral Diagnostic Guide for Developmental Disabilities. Vancouver: Diagnostic Books, 1998.
37. Reiss S, Valenti-Hein D. Development of a psychopathology rating scale for children with mental retardation. Consult Clin Psychol 1994;62(1):28–33.
38. Singh NN, Sood A, Sonenklar N, Ellis CR. Assessment and diagnosis of mental illness in persons with mental retardation. Methods and measures. Behav Modif 1991;15(3):419–443.
39. Rojahn J, Helsel WJ. The aberrant behavior checklist for children and adolescents with dual diagnosis. J Autism Dev Disord 1991;21(1):17–28.
40. Kazdin AE, Matson JL, Senatore V. Assessment of depression in mentally retarded adults. Am J Psychiatry 1983;40(8):1040–1043.
41. Hurley AD. Using the ABC sheet to analyze behavior: a training guide. Habil Ment Healthcare Newsl 1997;16(5):81–89.
42. Elman RJ. Introduction to group treatment of neurogenic communication disorders. In RJ Elman (ed), Group Treatment of Neurogenic Communication Disorders. Woburn, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1999: 3–7.
43. Tomasulo D. Group Counseling for People with Mild to Moderate Mental Retardation/Developmental Disabilities: An Interactive-Behavioral Model. New York: Young Adult Institute, 1992.
44. Pfadt A. Group psychotherapy with mentally retarded adults: issues related to design, implementations and evaluations. Res Dev Disabil 1991;12:261–286.
45. Hurley AD, Pfadt A, Tomasulo D, Gardner WI. Counseling and psychotherapy. In JW Jacobson, JA Mulik (eds), Manual of Diagnosis and Professional Practice in Mental Retardation. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 1996;371–378.
46. Brier NM, Demb HB. Psychotherapy with the developmentally disabled adolescent. J Dev Behav Pediatr 1980;1(1):19–23.
47. Carr EG, Durand VM. Reducing behavior problems through functional communication training. J Appl Behav Anal 1985;18(2):111–126.
48. Durand VM, Carr EG. Functional communication training to reduce challenging behavior: maintenance and application in new settings. J Appl Behav Anal 1991;24(2):251–264.
49. Cipani E. The communicative function hypothesis: an operant behavior perspective. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 1990;21(4):239–247.
50. Jayne D, Schloss PJ, Alper S, Menscher S. Reducing disruptive behaviors by training students to request assistance. Behav Modif 1994;18(3):320–338.
51. Reichle J, Wacker DP. Communicative alternatives to challenging behaviors. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes, 1993.
From: Sudhalter V. Problem behaviors in individuals with developmental disabilities. In: Devinsky O and Westbrook LE, eds. Epilepsy and Developmental Disabilities. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann; 2001;165–174.
© 2014 Epilepsy.com/professionals. All rights reserved.